The 64-year-old case of Brown versus Board of Education has left the intended purpose to enforce racial integration in schools decimated. It appears that the legal efforts to level the educational playing field are a waste of money, time, and personnel. Schools will need to eliminate the cultural rules that continue to resist efforts to achieve the byproducts of integration in schools.

Despite the Declaration of Independence, the Thirteenth Amendment, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Fifteenth Amendment, African American students continue to be treated differently. The long road that lead to the landmark case included the Brown versus Brown included Murray v. Maryland (1936), Missouri ex rel Gaines v. Canada (1938), Sweat v. Painter (1950), and the McLaurin v. Oklahoma Board of Regents of Higher Education (1950). The result of this historical road has resulted in African American students under achievement when compared to White students along will African American student involvement in disproportionate discipline.

Other efforts to level the playing include educational initiatives designed to improve the education of African Americans which have failed. A few examples include charter schools, school uniforms, and No Child Left Behind (NCLB).

Charter school supporters believed that charter schools created new educational options by liberating administrators and teachers to create effective instructional programs that provide better teacher and learning environments and curricular and instructional innovations. It was believed that school uniforms promoted learning and refocused students’ attention on academics, created a positive learning environment that increased student achievement and promoted compliance with educational goals, and increased student self-esteem.

NCLB required that students attending schools that received federal funding to accomplish specific student academic achievements in language arts and mathematics. NCLB required school districts to provide an alternative to schools that meet persistently dangerous school benchmarks by including a school choice options that enabled parents to send their children to another school of their choice. NCLB, charter schools, and school uniforms all have had limited success as educational reform efforts that helped African American students.

The long laundry list of legal and educational reform efforts that have had little effect on achieving racial integration in schools must become enhanced by efforts that improve racial relationships between teachers and students rather than a focus on racial integration.

Racial integration is the process designed to end racial segregation. Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. Due to the housing structure in the United States it is impossible to achieve racial integration in schools. There are even efforts by pour present administration to limit racial integration by limiting housing for those who are underprivileged.  

African American parents want their children to have an education that parallels the educational outcome for White students. Parents of color have to endure the hardships of an education that has left their family economic status unparalleled to that of Whites. Their children witness this travesty on daily biases and must wonder is pursuing an education in a society that hates them for the color of their skin worth the effort.

Since more than 80% of the teachers in the United States are White it must begin with the classroom relationships between White teachers and Black students. Schools must employ strategies that do not allow White teachers to feel threatened, embarrassed, or upset. When teachers have these feelings, they are less likely to help African American students because they must protect their economic status. Protecting their economic status results in White teachers taking advantage of their power over relationships with students in the classroom resulting in the continued lack of racial integration in schools.

All the best,

Dr. Derrick L. Campbell, Ed.D.
PO Box 4707 Cherry Hill, NJ 08034


Author of:

  • Promoting Positive Racial Teacher Student Classroom Relationships
  • Promoting Positive Racial Teacher Student Classroom Relationships: Methodology
  • Promoting Positive Racial Teacher Student Classroom Relationships: Facilitator Guide
  • The Raccelerate Formula App
  • Treasures of Hidden Racism in Education
  • The Ultimate Guide to Classroom Racism Management

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“Dr. Campbell did his part and now all we have to do is run with it.”
 ~ Tom Coleman ~
Woodstown-Pilesgrove Public Schools Superintendent of Schools

“The model that you use to analyze teacher-student relationships is a good one for most school districts”.

~ Joe Vas ~ Perth Amboy Mayor

“Dr. Campbell’s Cultural Relationship Training Program is comprehensive, informative, and should be required training for all schools”

~ Darrell Pope ~ Hutchinson Kansas NAACP President

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